Just when I thought I could sit back and let the garden do its thing, I found some unwelcome surprises.
The garden beds had several small holes in different spots and seedlings that I had just transplanted were munched down to their stems. After shaking my fists in the air shouting, “Whyyyyyyyyy?!?!” I decided to get to the bottom of this/these mysterious critters.
I gathered the following clues over the last three to four weeks: these critters only came out during the day; they left shallow holes dug from above ground, not tunnels or burrows from below; they only ate certain seedlings; and they could somewhat be kept out with fencing that mice could fit through.
Based on these clues and my location, it seemed reasonable that my garden was being attacked by squirrels. I was never able to catch them in the act myself. But this past weekend, my parents did me a favor by monitoring my yard and confirmed that, yes, my mystery invaders were indeed SQUIRRELS…lots of them, coming out in the afternoon through the rotting wood fence between my yard and the neighbor’s.
I couldn’t let the squirrels win this fight. I originally was going to just wrap hardware cloth around the perimeter of each raised bed, but my husband came up with a more aesthetically pleasing idea to build some legit pest fences.
The fences were constructed as four separate frames that could be individually removed from the border. The fence frames were built out of 2×2’s cut to fit right on top of the raised bed frames. Hardware cloth (1/4 in mesh) was cut and stapled to the frames. Near the ends of each frame, we installed 1/2 in 2 hole straps — these slip right over 3/8 in rebar stakes that hold the frames upright and in place.
The finishing touch was covering the top with bird netting (secured with clothespins) to block squirrels from climbing over the fence. The cost of homegrown produce sure keeps adding up!
Garlic and carrots have sprouted. Bok choy, cilantro, lettuce, onions, shallots and flower seedlings have been transplanted. Nighttime temperatures are in the low 50s, so it’s time for a greenhouse.
I placed 6 rebar stakes (2 ft long, 1/2 in diameter) into the raised bed and slipped 10 ft long, 1/2 in diameter PVC pipes over them, creating arches to make the frame for the greenhouse. Pictured above are two of the three arches with the last two rebar stakes in the front. The PVC pipes were painted copper so they wouldn’t look so much like…well, PVC pipes.
Greenhouse plastic (purchased as a 10 ft x 100 ft roll from Peaceful Valley Farm and Garden Supply) cut into a 10 ft x 13 ft rectangle was placed over the arches and secured with row cover snap clamps. The open sides were closed with velcro stickers.
Raised bed greenhouse!
I took another hiatus from gardening…my container garden ended up getting neglected, which isn’t such a bad thing considering the drought.
But I’ve still been composting kitchen scraps in my worm bin. The top tray of my multi-level worm bin is almost full, so I figured this was prime time to harvest the black gold from the starter tray. Here’s about 10 gallons worth of mature vermicompost (started January 9):
There were still some straggler worms in this tray, but the majority of them have already migrated to the top tray. So all I had to do was dump this onto my garden bed and mix it into the soil.
Oh yeah, I have a raised garden bed now. Picture and post to come soon.
I’ve started my garden this season with container-grown veggies. Here’s what everything looks like so far:
I started seeds throughout March and April. Seeds that have yet to germinate and young seedlings are housed in the Gatorade bottle cloches (which act as mini greenhouses and protect seeds from the birds).
The plan is to eventually have raised beds, but this piece of land is currently an unlevel patch of tough lawn. So I’ve instituted a no-till gardening approach to make the ground more workable, which will make it easier to level out the dirt and install raised beds on top.
What I’ve done is sort of like lasagna gardening, just with way less layers. I first covered the grass with a layer of wet newspaper.
Next, I layered wet cardboard on top of the newspaper.
I finished the foundation with a layer of compost (which I got a nice free load of from Miramar Greenery).
It looks like I have a freshly tilled garden plot. The layers of newspaper, cardboard and compost will block sunlight to the grass, which will gradually decompose underneath (along with the newspaper and cardboard). The decaying organic matter should attract some earthworms, which will help enrich the yard dirt and transform it into some nice garden soil.
This space, meanwhile, is home to various planters filled with a mixture of (free) compost, yard dirt, blood meal, bone meal, egg shells, coffee grounds and orange peels.
This was the first iteration of the planter arrangement. It’s changed several times until I settled on the arrangement shown in the first picture. I’ll be adding more plants, so my setup is still evolving.
I’m planning to start seeds soon. Currently, the yard is rife with hedges, birds of paradise plants, and other shrubs (as well as weeds) that I don’t care much for. I’ve been slowly uprooting this vegetation to make room for the vegetable garden and was curious about the state of the soil.
Typically, I’d just add a bunch of compost with a bit of blood meal and bone meal to the soil and call it good. This formula has worked well for me throughout all my humble gardening days. But this time, I figured I’d get to know the soil a little better first by conducting some soil tests.
I purchased a Leaf Luster Rapitest Soil Test Kit from my local nursery. The kit comes with four tests: pH, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The instructions were straightforward. Generally, the tests call for mixing one part soil with five parts distilled water, letting everything settle, and mixing small samples of the water with the capsules provided in the kit.
Here are the results from the soil tests and recommended amendments:
- pH –> alkaline (amend with sulfur)
- nitrogen –> depleted (amend with blood meal)
- phosphorus –> depleted (amend with bone meal)
- potassium –> sufficient
I already have two of the three recommended amendments. I guess I’ll need to get some sulfur to lower the soil pH and make it better suited for growing vegetables, which typically thrive in soil with a pH between 5.5 and 7. And of course I’ll be throwing in a bunch of compost per my normal ritual.
If it’s not obvious, I love composting. So much so that in addition to composting kitchen scraps with the worm bin, I’ve started composting yard waste (leaves, grass clippings, hedge cuttings, weeds) with a simple outdoor compost bin.
All this greenery is typically considered part of a homeowner’s trash, but with a little help it will transform into a garden’s treasure in a few months. This heterogenous heap will look like a mound of soil when it’s all done composting, and I can use it as fertilizer and mulch for my plants.
Why do I have a separate worm bin and outdoor compost bin? The three main reasons are pests, space and convenience. I compost kitchen scraps in the worm bin rather that in an outdoor pile so as not to attract rogue critters. Also, the yard wastes are too big and bountiful to fit in my worm bin. Lastly, I can keep each compost bin closest to their food sources: worm bin near the kitchen and yard waste bin in the yard.
Here’s how I made my outdoor bin:
- Roll of 3 ft x 25 ft welded wire
- Metal cutters
- Four 3 ft long U-post stakes,
- Zip ties
- 3 ft long plant stake or rod
- Using metal cutters, cut out four 3 ft x 3 ft squares of welded wire (I used the 3 ft long U-post stakes to measure). These squares will be the sides of the compost bin.
- Mark out a 3 ft x 3 ft square on the ground where the bin will be located. Stake a U-post at each corner.
- Position a wire square upright between two U-posts and zip tie both sides to the posts. Do this for three of the squares, reserving the fourth square. So far, the setup should have three walls with an opening (where the “door” will be).
- With the last wire square (the door), weave the garden stake (or rod) through one side. This will keep the door straight for opening and closing.
- Position the door at the opening of the bin and tie the free side (without the stake woven through) to a U-post with zip ties. Just fill with yard waste and cover the pile with a big piece of scrap cardboard to keep it moist.
It’s been a long time, but I’m back! A lot has happened since my last post that kept me away from gardening, mainly my move away from Washington back to sweet home California — San Diego, to be exact. And to sweeten the package, I have my very own yard now to transform into a vegetable playground.
I have big plans for this yard. This picture will be different once I get cracking. But I’ll elaborate later on my plot to take over this yard. First, I need to restart what I consider one of the most important gardening tasks: composting.
One of the instances that prompted my gardening hiatus was the passing of my red worms back in Richland. I made the mistake of moving my worm bin outside (where the temperatures reach over 100 F in the summer). The worms did fine until the triple digits hit. One day, I found them all clumped in an almost dry ball on the cement. They likely escaped the bin trying to find some cooler air just to get hit with hot, dry desert air and no hope for resuscitation. It was a very sad scene.
So now, I’m starting with new worms, as well as a new worm bin. I built a multi-tiered setup with “fancy new features” that could hopefully make the following tasks much easier:
- harvesting ready vermicompost without having to sift out the worms
- keeping the worms from crawling out when opening the lid
- keeping fruit flies out
Here’s what the complete setup looks like:
- 3 plastic storage totes (10 gallon size) w/ lids
- Wire basket reclaimed from a tossed-out shelving unit — this is the platform to keep the worm bin above the ground
- Plastic yogurt cup — to harvest the leachate (worm bin drippings)
- Drill with 1/2″, 1/4″, and 1/8″ hole bits
- Red worms (bought a bag of worms with their bedding from Walter Andersen Nursery)
- Worm bedding: shredded newspaper (not the glossy kind) and cardboard (paper towel tubes, eggshell cartons, boxes)
- Food: fruit & veggie waste (I also add eggshells that are washed and crushed to the compost pile, but the worms don’t eat these)
Building the multi-tiered worm bin:
- Leachate collection tray (bottom tier): Drill a 1/2″ hole at the bottom on one side of a plastic tote. Leachate will collect in this tote and drain through the 1/2″ hole into the yogurt cup for collection (commercial worm bins typically attach a spigot on the bottom tier to drain and collect the leachate, but I was too lazy to install one).Drill 1/8″ ventilation holes around the sides a few inches from the bottom.
- Stacking trays (middle and top tiers): Drill 1/4″ holes at the bottoms of the remaining plastic totes. These holes are for drainage and for worms to travel through.Drill 1/8″ ventilation holes around the sides about an inch from the top.
- Stacking tray liner: Take a lid for each stacking tray, cut out a large rectangular opening in the middle and trim away the outer border/lip of the lid. The liner covers the perimeter of the tray’s top opening. This will keep the worms from crawling over the edges and shelter the tray’s contents from fruit flies and other things (the tray bottoms are slightly smaller in size than the tops, so there’d be a small space that’s exposed when the next tray gets stacked on top). Here’s what it looks like next to an uncut lid for comparison:
Cover lid: Drill 1/8″ ventilation holes in one lid.
How to use the worm bin:
- Place the leachate collection tray on top of the wire basket/raised platform, set the yogurt cup under 1/2″ drainage hole.
- Set one stacking tray into the leachate collection tray (the side handles keep the stacking tray above the the leachate collection tray’s ventilation holes).
- Set the liner right into the top of the stacking tray.
- Fill the tray with moistened worm bedding, red worms and food. Seal with the cover lid. The worms will gradually turn the fruit & veggie scraps and bedding into compost.
- Once this tray is full, remove the cover lid and set another stacking tray (with its liner) on top. Start filling it with fresh scraps & bedding. Seal with the cover lid. The worms will move up to this top tray where the new food source is and leave behind ready-to-use compost in the tray below — eliminating the need to manually separate the worms.
- This setup can be expanded to include more stacking trays, if necessary.
Here we go!